Macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the UK.

The macula is an area at the back of your eye that you use for seeing fine details such as reading a book. Macular degeneration (MD) covers a number of conditions which affect the macular. The conditions affect your ability to do certain tasks such as reading and watching television, but do not affect your ability to walk around as your side vision is not affected.

One of the most common symptoms of MD is noticing that straight lines appear wavy or there are patches missing from your vision. You may not notice this if it happens in one eye as your other eye will compensate, so it is important to regularly check your vision in each eye separately. You can do this by looking with each eye separately at the straight lines on a door frame or Venetian blind. If you notice the lines are distorted or there are missing patches, you should see your optometrist straight away.

The most common forms of MD happen more as you get older and are known as age-related MD (AMD). Around one in 10 people aged 65 or older show some signs of MD caused by a genetic condition but this is less common than AMD.

AMD can be ‘wet’ or ‘dry’:

Dry MD is much more common than wet MD and is when yellow deposits, known as drusen, build up behind the macular. This may, in time, affect your vision, though this normally happens slowly. No treatment has yet been developed for dry MD.

Wet MD happens when abnormal blood vessels begin to grow behind the macula and leak fluid. This pushes the macula away from its blood supply at the back of the eye and causes a rapid loss of vision. It is usually associated with you noticing distorted vision (straight lines become wavy, or you have a blank spot in the centre of your vision). You can check this yourself by looking at straight lines such as door and window frames or venetian blinds. Or, you can look at a grid of squares printed on paper, called an Amsler chart. Your optometrist will be able to advise you on this. It is important to do this with each eye separately and while wearing your glasses, if you need them.

If you notice these symptoms, you need to see your optometrist straight away.

You can get more information about age-related macular degeneration at the following links:


The video below should be viewed in conjunction with the text beneath it and preferably watched while your optometrist discusses it with you.

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  • Light is focussed on the retina at the back of the eye.
  • The macula is a small area in the centre of the retina
  • … that we use to read and see fine detail.
  • The macula consists of several layers of tiny cells.
  • As we get older, these cells can fail to function properly
  • … leading to a build up of deposits and a loss of cells.
  • This can lead to distortion
  • … and over time, it can become difficult to read and see fine detail.
  • The condition usually progresses quite slowly
  • … and various aids are available to help you to see smaller print.